Earth is made up of several different layers, each with unique properties. In this video lesson, you will identify each layer of Earth and how it relates to Earth as a whole. Earth’s Core You may have heard that ogres are like onions because they have many layers. Well, Earth is the same way! Earth is made up of several different layers, each of which has unique properties. Let’s start from the inside and work our way out. Earth has a core, but this is really two distinct parts: Both parts of the core are made up of mostly iron and some nickel. The difference is that in the inner core, those minerals are solid and in the outer core, they’re liquid.
Earth Science Files
All are invited to submit abstracts and teaching demonstration proposals to the conference’s contributed program by March 1. Groups wishing to conduct a concurrent working group session at the Rendezvous should also submit an application by March 1. New Developments in Diversity and Inclusiveness in Geosciences In an upcoming edition centered on the theme of New Developments in Diversity and Inclusiveness in Geosciences, the Journal of Geoscience Education JGE will explore issues on pipeline development, recruitment and retention, graduate education and special topics such as minority serving institutions and non-traditional opportunities in both case studies and broad research investigations.
Scientists date igneous rock using elements that are slow to decay, such as uranium and potassium. By dating these surrounding layers, they can figure out the youngest and oldest that the fossil might be; this is known as “bracketing” the age of the sedimentary layer in which the fossils occur.
Fossils form through a number of ways, but almost exclusively they form in sedimentary rock. This particular fossil is a mold and cast fossil that will only form in sedimentary rocks. As time passed and the land masses moved the rock layers that contained the trilobite must have been uplifted to form the mountain. Finally, through weathering and erosion, the fossil was exposed to be seen. The ultimate point is that the environment must have changed from a seabed to a mountain.
Interactive Rock Cycle Annenberg Media produced a site with interactive rock cycle and classification information. The site ends with a printable assessment about the rock cycle that would be a great follow up assignment after the rock cycle lesson. To learn more, go to http: Gore from the Department of Geology , Georgia Perimeter College has a site with relative age dating information and instructions about ordering rock strata.
The site also connects to a lab activity for relative age dating. The lab and information is written at a beginning college level, however the resource could easily be altered for student work or for a group discussion about relative age dating techniques. For relative age dating information go to http:
Dating Rock Layers
When layers A-B-C were present, intrusion D formed. Intrusion D cut through layers A-C. Fault E formed, shifting rocks A through C and intrusion D. Weathering and erosion occurred, forming a layer of soil on top of layer A. Unconformities in Rock Layers[ edit ] Steno discovered the rules for determining the relative age of rock beds, but he did not have a good understanding of how long it would take for these rock formations to form.
The Teaching Geologic History Packet is now available. Click here. Contains over pages of ready-to-run materials covering: Relative and Absolute Time, Sequencing Geologic Events, Geologic History Timelines, Geologic Eras, Fossils, Tree Cookies, and Radiactive Dating.
Sedimentary Rocks slowest to form, and weather the fastest! The material is deposited in layers that will eventually form the sedimentary rock. These may be transported, usually by water or wind in the case of sand and deposited to form sediments. These become buried under later forming sediments and water or by major tectonic activity, and then become subjected to compression as enormous pressures are created deep in the crust from the weight of rocks or sediments above them.
Over millions of years from the fragments of eroded pre-existing rocks, water is squeezed out and the particles cement together with the help of dissolved salts and silica crystallising out. Other changes come about depending on the type of material from which the sedimentary rock is formed. It then becomes compressed under the weight of water and other sediments and the water is squeezed out and the particles cement together.
These rocks are clearly layered and crumble easily. Shale can contain significant amounts of oil-like organic material. Above is the pebble beach at Charmouth in southern England and the Jurassic fossil bearing shale cliffs in the distance million years old. Fossils found include ammonites, nautilus, belemnites, crinoids, shells and bones etc.
Shale cliffs are structurally weak and collapses of the cliff faces are regular, but they often reveal lots of good fossil specimens!
The Teaching Geologic History Packet is now available. Contains over pages of ready-to-run materials covering: Can be purchased as a Download or a CD. Several items from this Packet are also available below at NO CHARGE You are welcome to use these ideas in your classroom, within your science department, within your school district, or to distribute to any teacher who may find these lessons useful.
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Science Teacher Education Program © Geophysical Institute, UAF 5 Interpreting Rock Layers Interpret I ng r ock Layers a ssessment t ask: 1. Imagine rumor has it there is a gold vein in the oldest layer of bedrock in Mystic Canyon. Determine the arrangement of rock layers below ground in .
Read this article about Genesis genealogies. Day 54 Read about biomes on page 2. Click on each circle at the bottom of the page to read about each biome. There are links within each one to read its description and to learn about its location, temperature and precipitation. Make two graphs that show the temperature and precipitation of all the biomes.
Use one color for each biome and use that same color on both graphs. Make sure to label your graphs and to make a key that shows what each color stands for. Record twenty points for your graphs.
Activity 7: Relative Dating
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We have five layers total. Let’s say we find out, through numerical dating, that the rock layer shown above is 70 million years old. We’re not so sure about the next layer down, but the one below.
April Koch April teaches high school science and holds a master’s degree in education. Discover how geologists study the layers in sedimentary rock to establish relative age. Learn how inclusions and unconformities can tell us stories about the geologic past. We’ll even visit the Grand Canyon to solve the mystery of the Great Unconformity!
Your goal is to study the smooth, parallel layers of rock to learn how the land built up over geologic time. Now imagine that you come upon a formation like this: Example of a rock layer that is not smooth or parallel What do you think of it?
High School Earth Science/Relative Ages of Rocks
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The layers of rock that are on top of them are younger (unless the whole stack of rock has been overturned by tectonic processes). This is called the Law of Superposition. People drill wells deep through layers of sedimentary rock for a variety of purposes such as to find water, oil or natural gas.
Print The geologic time scale was initially developed by determining the relative ages of rock units, first in Europe, and then in other parts of the world. Most of this work was done in the s and s. To determine which rock units were older and which ones were younger in a relative sense , geologists devised a number of laws, or principles, to help figure out the sequence of geologic events in a particular locality. In this lab, you will apply many of these laws and principles to determine the relative sequence of geologic events that created a particular set of rock layers and intrusions.
By doing this, you will unravel the geologic history recorded in the rock record, just as geologists did hundreds of years ago, and still do today. An earlier current-formed ripple set at bottom of slide was later modified by a second ripple train migrating at right angles to the first. Crests of the first set are preserved in the troughs of the second set, hence, the ladderback appearance. Similar ripples occur in tidal environments and correct interpretation requires that the local facies content be taken into account.
Resources Before you begin this activity, read the book chapter listed below, which is available online through Library Reserves.